DNA of the Family
As a part of the Border Families project of Family Tree DNA, a number of Carothers and Carruthers are having their DNA analyzed and documented. Family Tree DNA is a genealogical tool designed to aid individuals wanting to "connect" with other relatives lost in time where the paper trail no longer exists. As a result of having your Y chromosome DNA analyzed, you receive the actual allele values for 12 locations on the Y chromosome. A perfect match of all 12 allele to another person with the same surname (or a variant), would indicate that you have a 99.9% likelihood of sharing a common ancestor with that person in a specific timeframe. Graphs and charts of the timeframes are provided along with the results of your Y DNA test. More specific tests can also be purchased beyond the 12 allele test.
Results of the Carothers / Carruthers who have signed up thus far for the DNA testing in the Border Reivers Project, can be found at Carruthers results page.
Some definitions are provided here:
Chromosomes: bundles of tightly coiled DNA. Humans have 23 paired chromosomes; 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair os sex chromosomes. A single chromosome of each pair is passed from each parent to child.
Haplogroup: a genetic population group associated with early human migrations and which can today be associated with a geographic region. It is important to note that even though female and male haplogroups may have the same letters, their definitions are different.
Gene: the functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring.
RAO (Recent Ancestral Origins): a database of countries of origin reported by people who have been tested.
Y-DNA: non-recombining DNA which determines whether a child will be male or female. Y-DNA passes from father to son almost unaltered for long periods of time.
A Count Of Official Participants By Surname
Border Families project of Family Tree DNA now has 490 official participants. Of these, 472 have so far returned their kits. The total includes:
Latest Developments of the Carruthers family results.
The number of haplotypes posted has grown to 18. Clearly, the predominant signature is an Ultra-Norse variant of I1a. This signature is obviously been native to the family for a very long time, as it predominates across the different versions of the surname - e.g., Carruthers, Carothers, Crothers and Cruthirds. We suspect the founders of the Carruthers family were of Viking or Norse-Gaelic descent.